EU countries or EU member states as of 2013
*Seventeen states use the Euro single currency, in addition to Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City
Latvia and Lithuania finalized their coin designs and were scheduled to join the Eurozone on January 1, 2009 but did not. The Czech Republic stated that it would be ready by November 2009 but was not. Bulgaria has abandoned plans to join euro.
Croatia signed an accession treaty in December 2011 to join the EU on July 1, 2013. No date has been set for Turkey to join the EU, in spite of improved relations; and accession talks with Montenegro began June 2012.
* Article last updated on January 2, 2013
Note that Norway, Switzerland, Iceland and Liechtenstein are technically non-EU countries. However, their citizens have the right to free movement within the EU due to EFTA or bilateral agreements based on the four pillars of freedom.
Citizens from Romania and Bulgaria are restricted from free movement in certain EU countries through December 31, 2013, not May 2011 as originally scheduled. Romanians and Bulgarians can:
- Work without a residence/work permit and without restrictions in Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Sweden.
- Work without a residence/work permit only in certain professions in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and Malta as of January 1, 2012.
Nature of citizenship
For those who do not understand the nature of citizenship, each member state has different laws and regulations pertaining to a person’s right to claim such through birth, origin, military service, naturalization or otherwise; marrying an EU citizen does not automatically give you the right to citizenship. It is wrong to assume all EU members are the same. See, “Acquiring EU citizenship through ancestry or naturalization” for more details.
Nationality still counts
All nationals of the 27 member states above are all EU citizens, but each member state still recognizes its citizens by nationality — Austrian, Dutch, French, etc.
In Greece, for example, native Greek citizens are often given preference over Greeks from abroad or non-Greek EU citizens when it comes to jobs. This may be true of other member states as well, despite all EU citizens being equal in both theoretically and lawfully.
It is also important to note that not all citizens of EU member states have been granted the right to free movement within the EU and not all EU countries are Schengen countries.
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