EU countries or EU member states as of 2013
Croatia as of July 1, 2013
Latvia and Lithuania finalized their coin designs and were scheduled to join the Eurozone on January 1, 2009 but did not. The Czech Republic stated that it would be ready by November 2009 but was not. Bulgaria has abandoned plans to join euro.
No date has been set for Turkey to join the EU, in spite of improved relations; and accession talks with Montenegro began June 2012.
*Article last updated on July 17, 2014
Restrictions on citizens of Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia
Citizens from Romania and Bulgaria are restricted from free movement in certain EU/EFTA countries through December 31, 2013 or 2016, not May 2011. Romanians and Bulgarians can:
- Work without a residence/work permit and without restrictions in Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Sweden.
- Work without a residence/work permit only in certain professions in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and Malta as of January 1, 2012.
- Work with a residence/work permit in Switzerland until 2016.
Citizens from Croatia are restricted from free movement in most EU/EFTA countries through July 1, 2015. Member states may also opt to extend this by 3+2 additional years. Croatian citizens can:
- Work without a residence/work permit and without restrictions in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Lithuania and Sweden.
- Work with a residence/work permit in
Switzerland andthe United Kingdom. *Switzerland revoked the right for Croatians to live/work in Switzerland on February 16, 2014 (WSJ)
*Many member states have not yet clarified their position on allowing Croatian citizens to enter the labor market.
Note that Norway, Switzerland, Iceland and Liechtenstein are technically non-EU countries. However, their citizens have the right to free movement within the EU due to EFTA or bilateral agreements based on the four pillars of freedom.
Nature of citizenship
For those who do not understand the nature of citizenship, each member state has different laws and regulations pertaining to a person’s right to claim such through birth, origin, military service, naturalization or otherwise; marrying an EU citizen does not automatically give you the right to citizenship. It is wrong to assume all EU members are the same. See, “Acquiring EU citizenship through ancestry or naturalization” for more details.
Nationality still counts
All nationals of the 28 member states above are all EU citizens, but each member state still recognizes its citizens by nationality — Austrian, Dutch, French, etc.
In Greece, for example, native Greek citizens are often given preference over Greeks from abroad or non-Greek EU citizens when it comes to jobs. This may be true of other member states as well, despite all EU citizens being equal in both theoretically and lawfully.
It is also important to note that not all citizens of EU member states have been granted the right to free movement within the EU and not all EU countries are Schengen countries.
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